World History

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Mesopotamia, an ancient Greek term meaning "the land between rivers," is considered to be the cradle of civilization because this is where we find the origins of agriculture, written language, and cities. Some of the best farmland of the Fertile Crescent is in a narrow strip of land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. The Greeks later called this region Mesopotamia, which means "between the rivers." Many different civilizations developed in this small region. 

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The Indus River Valley Civilization started about 2500 B.C.E. along the south-western part of the Indus River.Natural borders consisted of mountains and the Arabian Sea, sheltering the civilization from attack and disease. Water from the river fertalized and irrigated crops. Proximity to the river allowed boats to become a viable transportation option.The development of widespread irrigation systems allowed the indigenous population to provide food for themselves. Wheat and barley were primary crops, however rye, peas, cotton, and rice were also grown. Domestication of animals also served as an important tool for cultivation and as a source of food.

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The Nile River Valley Civilization started at the northern most peak of the Nile River at the time of the Neolithic Revolution.  This early civilization formed down the lush fields of the Nile River. Protected by the water and desert, the civilization was able to grow into Egypt and surrounding colonies. Geography for the Nile River Valley Civilization was very important.  The Nile would flood each year starting in July and lasting until November.  This flood would provide new, rich soil for the Egyptians and would wash away waste.  The seas around the civilization served a barrier against war and disease